Community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPMs) are used widely by non-governmental organisations and communities to address and protect children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect. The research in this study reviews the effectiveness and sustainability of CBCPMs and aims to strengthen the link between CBCPMs and the national child protection system. A global, inter-agency desk review of mostly externally facilitated CBCPMs was conducted as the first phase of work and the foundation for this study. The ethnographic research presented in this report is part of an inter-agency, grounded learning initiative undertaken in response to the desk review. It aims to strengthen child protection practice in the global child protection sector through research in three countries in West Africa (Sierra Leone), East and Southern Africa (Kenya), and Southeast Asia, respectively. This report was produced by The Columbia Group for Children in Adversity as part of a wider inter-agency learning initiative, funded by the Oak Foundation, USAID, UNICEF, World Vision, and Save the Children.