Overview of the Country situation
Tajikistan has a population of approximately 7,627, 200 . Children aged 0 – 14 years account for 33.9%, age group 15 – 64 accounts for 62.7%, while age group above 65 is estimated at 3.4%. The results of the national census conducted in 2010 are yet to be released.
The Republic of Tajikistan is landlocked and mountainous; GDP per capita is US$ 522 at an exchange rate of US$ 1,637 at PPP (2007). According to these indicators, Tajikistan is the poorest country in the Commonwealth of Independent States. In recent years Tajikistan experienced a period of recovery growth, and the overall poverty rate is decreasing too. Available data show that the poverty rate declined from 92.3% in 1999 to 53.1% in 2007 to 47.2% as at 2009 . However, a tremendous increase in food prices is threatening recent gains in overcoming poverty.
Having gained its independence in 1991, Tajikistan experienced a five-year civil war between 1992-1997. The signature of the “General Agreement of the Establishment of Peace and National Accord”, through a process of successful negotiations conducted under UN auspices, put an end to the fighting. Since that time, Tajikistan has come a long way in consolidating peace and stability .
Administratively, Tajikistan is divided into four regions: Gorno–Badakhshan, Khatlon, Sughd and the Direct rule districts near the capital, Dushanbe. Modelled on the Presidential form of governance, Tajikistan had its last elections in 2006 and referendum to amend the constitution in 2003.
Agriculture dominates the economy of Tajikistan, with cotton being the most important export commodity. While most people rely on food from farms for consumption, the food security situation in the country is worsening, affecting all spheres of life, including education, health and nutrition and migration patterns. Reports reveal that the amount of food consumed daily has decreased, staple food prices are soaring, there is a low dietary diversity and food stocks are low .
Human Rights Issues:
According to the Human Rights Watch in Tajikistan, human rights concerns include: lack of access to justice, due process violations, and ill-treatment in custody. The government is also reported to exercise excessive control over NGOs, religious organizations, political parties and the media.